Prevalence of Oral Manifestations and Associated Factors in the HIV Infection at a Reference Hospital from the Health’s Unified System, Brazil – an update Pages 73-83
Solange M. Silva1, Rejane F. Ribeiro-Rotta1 and Marco Tulio A. García-Zapata2
1Avenida Universitária com1ª Avenida, s/n. Faculdade de Odontologia – Praça Universitária s/n. Setor Universitário, Goiania, Zip Code 74605 220, Brazil; 2Rua 235 s/n. Setor Universitário, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública – IPTSP, Zip Code 74605, Brazil
Abstract: A severe control by the Brazilian Ministry of Health on the HIV infection suggests that all the opportunistic infections related to this disease are in a low frequency. This study aimed to characterize the oral lesions profile in patients with HIV/AIDS who presented to the public health system in Goiania, Brazil. An oral clinical examination was developed based on the EC-Clearinghouse on oral problems related to HIV infection. A questionnaire was completed, medical data were collected and photos were taken. A total of 201 patients were divided into two groups: Group I (92 HIV-positive patients with CD4+ count above 200 cells/mm3 and absence of symptoms of AIDS) and Group II (109 HIV-positive patients with CD4+ count below 200 cells/mm3 and with signs and symptoms of AIDS). The total prevalence for oral manifestations ranged from 19.60% (Group I) to 33.00% (Group II). Periodontitis associated with HIV infection occurred in 5.43% (Group I) and 11.00% (Group II) of patients. Linear gingival erythema occurred in 4.34% (Group I) and 7.34% (Group II) of patients. Erythematous candidiasis affected 4.34% (Group I) and 2.75% (Group II) of patients. Pseudomembranous candidiasis affected 1.83% of Group I patients. A significant association was observed between the occurrence of oral lesions related to HIV infection and age (p<0.05; OR 2.82; 95% CI (1.31-6.05)) and between HIV-related oral lesions and prosthesis wearing (p<0.05; OR 3.6; 95% CI (1.2-11.4)) in Group I patients. In Group II patients, an association was observed between the presence of caries and HIV-related oral lesions (p<0.005; OR 2.4; 95% CI (1.1-5.4)). Dry mouth was the most observed complaint related to antiretroviral therapy (7.80% in Group I and 11.00% in Group II). In conclusion, the Group II presented the highest prevalence of lesions, and periodontitis was the most common oral lesion. Age and prosthesis wearing were factors associated with the development of these lesions among Group I patients, while the presence of dental caries was associated with oral lesions in Group II patients.
Keywords: Oral manifestations, mouth disease, AIDS-related opportunistic infections, HIV. Read more